While here in Rabat, Morocco with Cross Cultural Solutions, I must confess: coffee hasn’t been part of my daily life. It’s hard to find much coffee drinking happening anywhere, though there are a few cafes that serve it. Instead, Moroccans get their energy from very strong, sweet mint tea. This tea is a part of the country’s social fabric. No matter what their day is like, every Moroccan pauses for tea many times a day. They live very slow and steady, full of ritual and peace. They are a positive people, without worry; “Inshallah,” they say — God willing. In other words, why worry? It is out of one’s control. Their tea drinking reflects this; there is always time for a pause, a time to rest and be with others.
Mint tea is served in the morning when one wakes, and at night before sleep — and every hour in between. It is presented to guests to welcome them, consumed after meals and in celebration. It is ingrained in every Moroccan’s consciousness — one cannot separate Moroccan culture from mint tea. In fact, it is offensive to reject an offering of tea, and one is expected to drink, at the very least, two cups when offered.
Our house manager, Khadija, is a warm spirit and a mean cook. She taught us how to make tea, the Moroccan way. Though I’ve found that no two people make it the exact same way, the components alwaysconsist of three things: green tea, lots of mint, and large amounts of sugar. They typically make the tea in an engraved silver pot, called a berrad. This can be placed directly on the stove, and the entire process takes place in this pot.
First, boil water in a separate kettle. Green tea leaves are added to the berrad (or any pot in which one plans to serve the tea in), and a small amount of boiling water is added. The tea is steeped 2 to 3 minutes, and then poured into a glass; more boiling water is poured into the pot, the tea is swished around, and poured into a second glass. The second glass of tea is the “dirty” tea, the dust and dirt that they believe is left on the leaves after the initial steep. Therefore, discard the second glass of tea.
Fill the pot with water once again, this time filling the pot completely. Put the berrad on the stove and bring to a boil, then add a handful of fresh mint. True Moroccan tea is incredibly sweet; all around Morocco, we were often asked if we wanted the tea Morocain or Américain – apparently American tourists find the tea too sweet (which doesn’t seem very American to me!) For the true Morocain taste, add two large sugar sticks. Moroccans never stir their tea, it is simply poured many times to dissolve the sugar. The tea is poured into accompanying glasses from a high distance, then poured back into the pot. This is repeated three or four times. The pouring must be done from a high distance to get the proper layer of foam that Moroccans strive for; “your tea must have a good turban,” Khadija told us.
Finally, the tea is ready to be served in small, traditional etched glasses, allowing many cups to be had (Moroccans always drink 3 or more cups in one sitting). It is sweet, strong, and minty, and is always accompanied by good conversation. It’s the Moroccan way.
This Christmas I received something I have coveted for the past (almost) decade: an at-home espresso machine.
The Rancilio Silvia is an Italian-made stunner, producing high quality results in a compact, rather easy-to-use machine. Clive Coffee named it one of the best single-boiler espresso machines under $1,000 (as many of you may or may not know, espresso machines are generally, très cher). Though I’ve never owned a more expensive machine in comparison, I can say that this machine has been my at-home savior. I’m simply, in love.
After a couple of months, and perhaps 400 cappuccinos later (not all imbibed, don’t worry), I’ve learned a thing or two. And I wanted to share my amateur findings. There is, as always, much room for improvement — any advice you may have, feel free to pass on. I’m only two months into being top barista of my household, so I remain humble.
The Rancilio Silvia is a single-boiler espresso machine — meaning there is only one water-heating source for both brewing and steaming. Therefore, it will take a bit more time to prepare a milk drink; after an espresso shot is pulled, one must wait for the machine to heat up to optimal temperature once again before steaming milk. Since I’m usually only making one or two drinks at a time, this isn’t a concern for me.
First of all, as always, fresh and properly roasted coffee is required for a good result. I’m currently brewing a single-origin Kenyan from Columbus, Ohio-based roaster One Line Coffee. I think it’s really great as an espresso.
When pulling espresso at home, one of the most important elements is yourgrind. Grind is an important aspect of any coffee-making, but one honestly can’t pull a good espresso shot unless a proper grind is used. I received the Baratza Maestro (since discontinued) the Christmas before last, from my husband (do you sense a Chrismas pattern?), and it has really made all the difference. There are even more efficient grinders for espresso use, but I have found that this one is doing the job for now.
The espresso should be fine and powdery, which allows a uniform and compact tamp (that little silver hammer which baristas use to pressurize the grinds in the group-head). While tamping, one should apply even, forceful pressure for about 30 seconds. There should be no holes or cracks in the espresso once one tamps. A proper grind and tamp are really the most essential components of pulling a shot of espresso, since after that, the Rancilio does most of the work.
The extraction time is the final variable one must watch carefully. It is, quite simply, the time it takes to brew an espresso shot. Optimal time varies between machines, but generally lies between 20-25 seconds from the time you flip the switch to the end result. I am currently extracting espresso for about 20 seconds — perhaps too short –but my espresso has been rich and thick, with a nice crema (that white frothy layer that sits on the top of an espresso shot, an effect of the gases being released during extraction.) The grind is probably the culprit, and I plan on experimenting with slightly finer and coarser grinds.
Next up, I’ll tackle the highly difficult art of steaming milk. Stay tuned!
I produced a short film on my iPad — grainy and pixelated since I’m currently sans camera! — to give you some visuals.
As we bicker and complain and judge and gossip and wallow, this young woman has endured more than most of us ever will, and remains full of hope and happiness. I’m often in awe of Malala; how can one girl be so strong, so full of love after living through such a horrific act? Her patience and kindness are inspiring. It requires a deep strength to maintain such kindness, forgiveness, and compassion in the face of such evil.
“If you hit a Talib, then there would be no difference between you and the Talib. You must not treat others with cruelty…You must fight others through peace and through dialogue and through education.” – Malala
Kinfolk is an aesthetics-driven quarterly magazine created by Nathan and Katie Williams. Without pretense (or advertisements!), the magazine strives to encourage people to come together and connect over art, food, and living in its purest forms. They have put together a gorgeous cookbook, The Kinfolk Table, full of inspiring people and their personal recipes. I am so honored that Kinfolk asked me to be a part of this timeless book, and that I could use this platform to pay homage to my amazing grandmother; I myself will be referencing these recipes in my kitchen for years to come.
You can purchase it at your local bookstore Monday, October 15th. You can order it online here.
Ah, Paris. The city’s visuals are like one big mise-en-scène. The way the bateaux mouches wind down the Seine, the Eiffel Tower standing majestically on the river’s edge, the chic Parisians with baguettes in hand. Though it’s also a city of fashion and trends and hipsters and Haussmanization and such, the city will always evoke a certain nostalgia of times past –the old life of le cafe and le pain and old men in chapeaux (or is that just my peculiar romanticism?) The neighborhood of Le Marais is the perfect example; an old Jewish ghetto, on the surface, is now quite gentrified with commercial boutiques and shops. But one must explore deeper. Inside Le Marais‘ narrow medieval streets, the old vintage shops and patisseries still retain the magic of yore. The 3rdarrondissement harkens back to its heritage as a Jewish enclave, and synagogues and Jewish delis are still lining the small windy rues.
La Caféothèque is the oldest of the specialty Parisian cafes, located at the edge Le Marais on Hotel de Ville — a street parallel to the Seine. Opened in 2005 by Gloria Montenegro de Chirouze, former Guatemalan ambassador to France, it was the first cafe in Paris to offer coffee brewed to order. Cafeotheque features an extensive single origin menu where one may choose a country and a brew method: french press, cafe filtre (pour over), or even, Aeropress. The front of the shop serves as the shop’s roastery, and one can purchase house-roasted beans by the kilogram; an espresso bar is situated in the back. La Caféothèque also serves as a training center for baristas, Gloria’s “L’École de Cafés.” (Nicolas Clerc from Télescope trained here).
The space itself is a series of salons, each unique in their design: one room’s walls are bursting with plants — a greenhouse of sorts — with windows overlooking the street; another room is full of comfy couches, oriental rugs, burlap coffee sacs, and shelves of books.
Gloria is such a warm and enthusiastic owner, and thus La Caféothèque was my second home while in Paris. She is like the maman of specialty coffee; seemingly every barista in Paris trained with her before moving on to their own ventures . And her entrepreneurial spirit is fresh, too. She most recently told me her dream was to expand into other countries, including (gasp!) the states. Gloria, we are waiting for you.
The diner is where I learned to drink coffee. When I was quite young, maybe four or five, my mother met a quirky group of friends each week at a legendary establishment called Southern Kitchen, in my native Charleston, West Virginia (may you rest in peace, Southern Kitchen). She would bring me along, so I could be one of the ladies for the afternoon. The women would meet for brunch, but linger for hours over the coffee. Their cups would be refilled again and again, and they’d spruce it up with yet another creamer, a few more packets of Sweet’n Low. I loved the way they all told stories while nursing the warm mugs in their hands; they’d sit in those booths for hours, their raucous laughter emanating through the air. Even as a child I thought, “This is really special.” It was something I wanted to be a part of — the connection they shared, the fun they seemed to have. And it all centered around coffee.
The iconic ’90s sitcom Seinfeld took this familiar ritual and used it as a platform. The diner was the meeting ground for Jerry and company. Watching the show as a youngster, I dreamed of meeting my friends over coffee, in a diner on the corner, having something interesting to say. Still to this day, when I’m sitting in a corner booth at a diner in the city, I feel a strange feeling: I feel like I’ve made it. (Yes, my aspirations are different than yours).
Jerry Seinfeld recently called into NPR’s Morning Edition during Coffee Week, reflecting on coffee’s social and ritualistic role in his life. It happens to be the basis of his new online show, Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee. It’s exactly that: Comedians driving around the city in really cool cars, getting coffee. The coffee is the catalyst to authentic, brilliantly comedic conversation. Enjoy!
COFFEE CONVERSATIONS is a new section of the blog, profiling inspiring and interesting people. Essentially, they are conversations with extraordinary human beings about art, design, music, and world events, usually over a cup of coffee. This particular conversation was had over the phone, but no doubt with coffee in hand.
“Never doubt that a small group of committed people can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.” – Margaret Mead
A growing group of Christians, Muslims, and Jews in Mbale, Uganda have sought to create change in their own community, by taking on a lofty goal: interfaith peace through coffee and music. Led by Jewish musician J.J Keki, the cooperative calls themselves Peace Kawomera, or “Delicious Peace.” They grow, pick and process organic coffee, side-by-side, in a country that remains divided by religious and ethnic barriers. Music is a strong part of Ugandan culture, used for communicative and joyous purposes; the farmers of Peace Kawomera follow in this tradition, writing and performing songs which promote their peaceful worldview, educate those around them, and celebrate the crop that brings them economic prosperity.
In 2001, J.J. Keki was invited to visit the states on a lecture tour. While in line at the World Trade Center to view New York City’s skyline from above, he found himself in the midst of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, running for survival after witnessing the first plane strike the towers. After Keki’s experience in New York, he returned to Uganda on a mission: to use his gifts and the resources around him to promote religious peace. Rabbi Jeffrey Summit, a research ethnomusicologist and Jewish Chaplain at Tufts University in Boston, met Keki while recording his Grammy nominated album, Abayudaya: Music from the Jewish People of Uganda(Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 2005). After being introduced by a friend to a recording of Peace Kawomera’s songs, Summit felt compelled to visit Mbale to hear the music himself.
Delicious Peace: Coffee, Music, and Interfaith Harmony in Uganda (Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 2013) was recorded and produced by Summit. Speaking to the rabbi by phone, the day after two bombs tore through crowded streets during the Boston Marathon, I remarked on the timeliness of the album’s release. “What better thing to put into the world right now, a project about peace,” I said. “You know, I wish it wasn’t so relevant,” he replied, clearly shaken by the events of the previous day.
In a short documentary filmed by Rabbi Summit in Uganda, Keki explains his driving philosophy: “Whatever you have, use it for peace. If you have music, use music,” he says. “We have coffee,” he explains. And coffee may just be the perfect crop for peace. He holds a ripe coffee cherry in his hand, peeling the skin to expose two beans inside. “We should copy the example of coffee to bring peace” Keki says. “You see this one?” he asks. “Two beans in each coffee. Which means it is friendly, it doesn’t want to live alone.”
Rabbi Summit traveled to Uganda three separate times, recording 400 farmers. “Recording in East Africa is its’ own special challenge,” Summit told me. Originally they set up recording sessions right in the middle of the vibrant, chaotic goings-on of the village, which, though beautiful and authentic, proved to be “very distracting” while recording. “We [along with recording engineer John Servies] were out in the bush,” Rabbi Summit recalls, recording in rural landscapes, as well as finding acoustic solace in synagogues, mosques, and churches. The music itself is a layering of women’s choral voices, African guitar music, and indigenous instruments — including the tube fiddle, shaker, and wooden xylophone — and even a Casio keyboard.
The songs are performed at community events, in an effort to attract others to join the cooperative. Sung in various languages — including English, Swahili, Arabic, and Hebrew — the impact is far reaching. These songs are used as engaging ways to transmit information. Many are educational or instructional, such as “In Uganda, everyone grows coffee,” and “Construct a processing factory;” others celebrate peace, such as “Let all religions come together.”
An integral part of the success of Peace Kowomera is Fair Trade. “It’s not just about paying people more,” Summit explained. It helps fund important practices, including providing credit for famers to expand their coffee farms, preventing harmful child labor, and protecting the environment. The benefits of Fair Trade are less obvious when the volatile coffee market is high, Summit told me. “Coffee prices dip precipitously,” he explains. During these market lows is when large companies, taking advantage of desperate circumstances, offer attractively higher prices to farmers. This short-sighted relief does not maintain stability; if during the the following year, the market jumps again, the farmer will sustain large cuts to prices. Fair Trade provides a stable income, helping farmers weather the highs and lows of the market. Most importantly, “For many farmers, the Fair Trade price is literally the difference between abject poverty and being able to afford malaria medication, basic health care, and school fees for their children,” Summit writes in the liner notes of the album.
The results of Keki’s efforts are nothing short of astounding. In the liner notes of “Delicious Peace,” Rabbi Summit tells the story of two farmers of Peace Kawomera –Patrick, a Christian, and Mohamud, a Muslim — sitting down to lunch. They told Rabbi Summit about their childhood, under the dictatorship of Idi Amin, when they were not permitted to socialize with people of other faiths. “When I asked if it was usual for a Christian and Muslim to eat together, they both laughed and said that even four years ago, before they joined the cooperative, it would have been inconceivable to them,” Rabbi Summit writes; he notes that outside of the cooperative, tensions and divisions are still present, an acknowledgement that interfaith cooperation remains an issue in Uganda.
How can we work to overcome religious and ethnic divisions in our own communities? The answer is shockingly simple, according to these farmers. “These communities have made peace a priority,” Summit explained. They often speak of the importance of “being one” with others. Summit recalls a time he was lectured about America’s fighting in Afghanistan. “They didn’t understand,” he says, why we couldn’t “be one person” with all people.
Indeed, perhaps all citizens of the world should see the world as such.
Purchase Delicious Peace through Smithsonian Folkways, here. All proceeds go towards supporting the children of Peace Kawomera members. Buy a bag of Delicious Peace coffee through Thanksgiving Coffee Company, here.
Coffee co-op and roaster Equal Exchange has embarked on a journey to source coffee from deep within the world’s protected biospheres. Recently, a group of three Equal Exchange worker-owners traveled to Peru’s Bahuaja-Sonene Biosphere, and explored farms that are part of the CECOVASA co-op. Their journey was captured on film, a glimpse into what it’s like to grow and pick coffee in these rugged and untouched regions.
It’s a beautiful and exciting journey, providing these farmer’s a fair opportunity to share their beans with the rest of the world. Enjoy the two-part documentary below. (To read more about their journey, click here.)
At Abuela’s Kitchen, a newly opened Cuban restaurant on Lincoln Road — Miami’s crowded and eclectic outdoor shopping mall — the women at the counter greet sólo en español. Since I don’t know much Spanish, I stick to what I do know: coffee. “Cortadito, please,” I ordered on a breezy Friday morning. “Non!” the robust waitress countered, shaking her head. “Too small. You want a cafe con leche — very strong and good.” It was early, and Cubans, like Italians, drink their heavy milk drinks in the early hours of the day. I nodded my head; really, I’d drink whatever she told me to — I didn’t want any trouble.
Cubans are one of the many cultures that make up the vibrant and multifaceted community of Miami, and the influence of their culture is unmistakable. Walking around Miami Beach, it can often feel like one is wandering through foreign streets; as one Colombian immigrant told me, “everyone in Miami is from somewhere else.” While I’m sure Miami natives exist, the city’s strong Latin presence is evident in Miami’s coffee scene. In nearly every cafe, one will see a café cubano on the menu.
A café cubano is a shot of espresso, often made with Bustelo beans, pulled with sugar, or sometimes, poured over sugar. The sugar caramelizes and turns into a kind of syrup, creating the notable sweetness Cuban coffee is adored for. Bustelo beans are darkly roasted (I know, I know, wrong on so many levels), so the sugar is never overpowering because the undercurrent of the coffee is so strong.
A café con leche is one part café cubano, two parts steamed milk. Often, condensed milk is used, creating an extra sweet treat.
Finally, a cortadito is the perfect blend of the two. It is a Cuban version of the macchiato: a potent shot of Bustelo, laced with sugar, cut with a drop of steamed milk.
Cuban coffee is engrained in Miami culture. Gazing at the crowd huddled around the the outdoor window at Abuela’s, one notices tourists, locals, Latinos, Haitians, and Europeans alike: a snapshot of Miami, all drinking a café cubano.
St. Simons, Georgia walks a contrariant line. Part of Georgia’s Golden Isles, it is a sleepy island town anchored by wild, unkempt beach. It is a truly traditional, southern, “bless your heart” and “eat those grits” kind of place, yet also serves as a quirky enclave of artists, writers, and forward thinkers. In the shopping center of Redfern Village alone, one can wander through art galleries, interesting jewelry shops (including Cumberland Island’s Gogo) a Tibi outlet (she grew up here, after all) and — surprisingly enough! — a truly special coffee shop tucked inside, too.
Wake Up Coffee opened three years ago by island native Bo Mann. Upon graduating from the University of Georgia in 2006, Bo became restless with his new nine-to-five job; he decided he needed to set out and explore the world. “For so many years I had studied and talked about the injustice in the world, but I’d never really seen it with my own eyes,” he told me via email. “I constantly challenged others to do something to help but I had never fully done anything myself.”
And see the world he did. Bo spent the next two years traveling through Africa, Eastern Europe, and Haiti. He discovered beautiful cultures and met extraordinary people, leaving him forever changed. Yet he also witnessed the overwhelming poverty that plagues much of our planet. “During my time overseas, one recurring thought ran through my head,” he says. “Now that I know, I must do something.” Wake Up Coffee was born out of this call for action. Inspired by the rich tea and coffee culture he experienced in North Africa, Bo wanted to create a cafe where the local community could gather, a springboard for discussion and education about the global injustices of the world.
Now run by he and his wife, Aletha, Wake Up Coffee serves regionally roasted beans, including Bartdorf and Bronson of Atlanta, and Cafe Campesino of Americus, Ga. All coffee is fair trade certified as well, a pillar of the cafe’s ethos; the fair trade certification “ensures our customers that our products are produced ethically and our artisans are paid a fair wage for their work,” he says. This eliminates the uncertainties surrounding coffee’s production, including child labor and slavery. And with the frustration that often arises from a lack of transparency plaguing the system, the duo may soon be stepping into the role of roaster. Their ambitions are high, as they hope to personally and directly import every product they sell — coffee included — by the end of 2015.
The cafe serves as a unique retail space as well, selling global good like handmade baskets from Uganda and metalwork by artisans from Turkey. Realizing that true change comes from providing opportunities for workers to develop sustainable businesses, Wake Up provides artisans — most of them women living in a country with little to no rights — a chance to sell their goods at more than fair prices. “We believe that development is far more important than aid, and is the longterm way to see a real change in global poverty,” Bo says. By selling things that are both beautiful and practical, they are giving the Saint Simons community a hand in alleviating global poverty. “Everyone wears earrings, or necklaces or carries a wallet or purse,” he says. “Everyone drinks coffee. Buy one from us instead of a big box store and [you are] helping break years and years of poverty.”
Bo and Aletha are inspired by their faith and Christian doctrine. And though they don’t align the cafe professionally with any particular faith, their personal faith is the driving force in seeking to create good in the world. “We’ve never wanted to be a faith affiliated shop but at the same time, we want our principles and beliefs to be reflected in everything we do.”
Creating a specialty coffee culture in this tiny island community, Bo and Aletha have inspired a town to think big, proving that acting locally can lead to sweeping changes globally. “At the end of the day we want people to come into the shop to become educated on [what's] happening in the world and to do something about it, Bo says.” “Coffee is just the medium by which we do that.”
Most importantly, he tells me, “we want people to ‘Wake Up.’”